can / can't
Addition and Subtraction
Days of the week
Count and Noncount Nouns
Important verbs for asking about and telling time:
have, know, be, tell
Be - Past Tense
Possessive adjectives show ownership or belonging. They must go somewhere before a noun.
The Past Tense
There are two types of past tense verbs:
regular verbs: add "ed" to the simple form
irregular verbs: don't add "ed"
Prepositions show location, proximity, and relationships:
He is standing on a pencil. She is at the beach. The flower is in the glass.
A / An / The
Articles are used in front of Nouns. "A" or "An" are always singular.
"The" is singular or plural. Some plural nouns don't use an article.
When using articles, it's important to also know the difference between count and noncount nouns.
The verb "have"
Have is usually used for ownership and description, but it's also a very popular substitute for eat and drink.
I have a new car.
I have time to go to the movies.
She has cereal and coffee for breakfast every morning.
Have is also an important helping verb: I have lived in Minnesota for three years. In this example, (have) + (past participle) makes the present perfect tense.
Note: To make "have" negative in the present tense, use don't or doesn't + have. Correct: He doesn't have any money. / I don't have any money. Incorrect: He hasn't any money. (but okay in British English)
The Present Continuous Tense
The Present Continuous Tense usually describes things that are happening now, but it can also be used to describe important things in your life, and future activity.
The Present Tense
The Present Tense describes the things you do every day. Note the use of an "s" at the end of the verb when describing a man, a woman, or a thing. Do not confuse the present tense with the simple form.
Present Tense - Negative do + not + verb
this / that / these / those
This - A thing or a person is close. This = singular. That - A thing or a person is far. That = singular.
These - Things or people are close. These = plural. Those - Things or people are far. Those = plural.
Nouns and Pronouns
Nouns represent people, places, things, activities, emotions, and ideas. Nouns are also divided into two main groups: Count Nouns and Noncount Nouns.
Be - Present Tense Questions
(Be) + Subject + ____?
Be - Present Tense Negative
Subject + (be) + not
The verb "be" is the most important verb to learn in English. It's also the most complicated. In the present tense it has three forms: am, is, are. In the past tense, it has two forms: was and were. The verb "be" is also used to make the passive voice.